|School||Cardiff School of Planning and Geography|
|External Subject Code||K400|
|Number of Credits||20|
|Language of Delivery||English|
|Module Leader||Dr Georgina Santos|
The module focuses on poverty, development and urbanisation. It pays particular attention to potential policies to alleviate poverty and enhance development. Some of the questions that will be discussed include: What is economic development? What is human development? How do poor public health and education affect development and what can be done about these issues? Why are there fewer women than men in some countries and how can improving their status help development? Is there a role for microfinance? How can foreign aid help? What are the impacts or rural-urban migration? What are the problems of the informal sector in cities? What are the impacts of inequality on urban spaces? How did cities originate and how are they changing?
Students will gain knowledge and understanding of: (1) the differences between the concepts of poverty, inequality, economic development and human development and the measures and indicators that have been proposed; (2) the challenges of education, health and demography in developing countries; (3) the obstacles poor groups in developing countries face in order to access credit and insurance and the solutions that have been proposed; (4) the pros and cons of international aid; (5) the impacts of rural-urban migration in developing countries; (6) the problems of the co-existence of formal and informal sectors in urban areas in poor countries; (7) the origin of cities and their changing urban forms.
Students will also improve a number of skills they hopefully already have, and: (a)be able to orally present group work on a specific topic; (b) be able to write an individual report with reference to an urban centre, assessing the main impacts of urbanisation and developing proposals to address the urban problems; (c) be able to debate issues related to development and poverty on the basis of knowledge acquired through readings and at lectures; (d) be able to answer specific questions related to the different module topics in writing in a clear and concise manner.
The module consists of lectures, group and class discussions, group presentations, and the occasional use of a relevant video. The group and class discussions promote skills in communication, as does the group presentation, thus helping achieve the skills described under learning outcomes. Most topics throughout the module are illustrated with at least one case-study, which helps put the concepts together.
During the course of the module there will be plenty of opportunities to practise and master a number of skills. Students will be expected to:
1. write clear and concise answers in the form of short essays, analysing a topic in a logical manner and backing arguments up with academic references.
2. be able to work in a group to prepare a presentation
3. debate a topic in class, justifying arguments in a reasoned way.
4. read the latest research on a topic new to the student and be able to grasp the main points, regardless of the student’s background.
There will be 2 summative assessments supported by formative assessments. The formative assessments will consist of one group presentation, to take place in a session half-way through the term and linked to learning outcome (5) and learning outcomes/skills (a) and class and group debates and discussions, to take place virtually every week, and linked to learning outcomes/skills (c).
Most of these assignments can be undertaken by students with almost any disability. However, individual cases will be catered for if a student were unable to complete any of the assignments described above due to a disability.
Individual Report 30%
Students are permitted to be reassessed (usually once) in a module which they have failed, in line with course regulations. The reassessment will usually take place during the summer.
Poverty, Economic Growth, Economic Development and Human Development. Measures (Gross National Income and Human Development Index). Millennium Development Goals. Inequality. Education. Financial markets, microfinance and insurance. Rural-Urban Migration (allowing different groups of students to concentrate on different aspects or case studies).Gender. International aid. Health. The Urban Economy and Employment. Inequality in the city. History of Urban development.
Argenti, O. and Marocchino, C. (2005) Urban Food Supply and Distribution in Developing Countries and Countries in Transition: A Guide for Planners. AGSF Occasional Paper 3. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Banerji, D. 2005. Politics of rural health in India. International Journal of Health Services 35(4), pp. 783-796.
Boadi, K., Kuitunen, M., Raheem, K., and Hanninen, K. (2005), Urbanisation Without Development: Environmental and Health Implications in African Cities, Environment, Development and Sustainability7, pp. 465–500.
Brown, A., M., B., Lyons, M., & Dankoco, I. (2010) Street traders and the emerging spaces for urban voice and citizenship in African cities. Urban Studies 47 (3), pp.666-683.
Brown, A., M., B. (2006) Contested Space: Street trading, public space and livelihoods in developing cities. Rugby: ITDG.
Castillo, G., E. (2003) Livelihoods and the City: An overview of the emergence of agriculture in urban spaces, Progress in Development Studies3, pp.339-344. (Also good for the next session).
Cheng, L., & Gereffi, G. (1994) The Informal Economy in East Asian Development International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 18 (2),pp.194-219.
Coudouel, A, Hentschel, J. S., and Wodon, Q. T. 2001. Poverty measurement and analysis. In World Bank, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) Sourcebook, Washington D.C. Available at: http://urban.csuohio.edu/~2427076/papers/poverty_measurement_anaysis.pdf
Cull, R., Demirguc-Kunt, A. and Morduch, J. 2009. Microfinance meets the Market. Journal of Economic Perspectives23(1), pp. 167-192.
Deneulin, S. and Shahani, L. (eds). An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach. London – Sterling.VA: Earthscan. Chapters by:
-Alkire, S. and Deneulin, S. 2009. The Human Development and Capability Approach, pp. 22-48.
-Spence, R. 2009. Economic Growth, pp. 73-100.
-Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E. 2009. Poverty and Inequality Measurement, pp. 121-161.
-Unterhalter, E. 2009. Education, pp. 207-227.
-Johnson S. 2009. Institutions, Markets and Economic Development, pp. 162-184.
This book is freely available at: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-143029-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Duflo, E., Rema, H. and Ryan, S. 2005. Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School. NBER Working Paper No 11880. NBER Working Paper Series. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w11880
FAO (2011) Food, Agriculture and Cities: Challenges of Food and Nutrition Security, Agriculture and Ecoysystem Management in an Urbanizing World. FAO Food for the Cities Multi-disciplinary initiative position paper. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organisation.
FAO (2012) Growing Greener Cities in Africa, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.
Glewwe, P. and Kremer, M. 2006. Schools, Teachers, and Education Outcomes in Developing Countries. In Hanushek, E. and Welch, F. eds.Handbook of the Economics of Education. Elsevier, pp. 945-1017. [Available on LearningCentral]
Hall, S. (1994) ‘The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power’, in Stewart Hall & Bram Gieben, eds., Formations of Modernity, Polity Press, Cambridge. (Excellent for background understanding of ‘discourse’ deployed by Escobar).
Homedes, N., Ugalde, A. and Rovira Forns, J. 2005. The World Bank, pharmaceutical policies, and health reforms in Latin America. International Journal of Health Services 35(4), pp. 691-717.
Hoselitz, B. F. (1953), The Role of Cities in the Economic Growth of Underdeveloped Countries, Journal of Political Economy 61 (3), pp. 195-208. (Read as example of historical discourse on the subject).
Hovorka, A., de Zeeuw, H. and M. Njenga, eds. (2009) Women Feeding Cities: Mainstreaming Gender in Urban Agriculture and Food Security. Rugby, UK: Practical Action Publishing.
Kabir, M., Rahman, A., Salway, S. & Pryer, J. (2000) Sickness among the urban poor: a barrier to livelihood security, Journal of International Development 12 (5), pp. 707-722.
Kremer, M.; Chaudhury, N.; Halsey, F.; Muralidharan, K. and Hammer J. 2005. Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot. Journal of European Economic Association 3(2-3), pp. 658-667.
Kremer, M., Edward M. and Thornton, R. 2004. Incentives to Learn. NBER Working Paper No 10971. NBER Working Paper Series. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10971
Ladd, H. 2002. School vouchers: a critical view. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(4), pp. 3-24.
Lewis, N.D. and Keiffer, E. 1994. The health of women: beyond maternal and child health. In Phillips D.R. and Verhasselt Y. eds. Health and Development. London: Routledge.
Morduch, J. 1999. The Microfinance Promise. Journal of Economic Literature 37 (4), pp. 1569-1614.
Pacione, M. (2009) Urban Geography: A Global Perspective. London: Routledge.
Perkins, D., Radelet, S., Snodgrass, D., Gillis, M. and Roemer, M. 2001. Economics of Development. 5th ed. New York – London: W. W. Norton & Company.
Chapter 1: Introduction, pp.3-26.
Chapter 9: Education, pp. 319-344.
Chapter 13: Financial Policy, pp. 476-522.
Ray, D. 1998. Development Economics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Chapter 2: Economic Development: Overview, pp. 7-46.
Chapter 6: Economic Inequality, pp. 169-196.
Chapter 7: Inequality and Development: Interconnections, pp. 197-248.
Rocha, C., & Lessa, I. (2009) Urban governance for food security: The alternative food system in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. International Planning Studies. 14(4), pp. 389-400.
The Economist. 2010. Economics focus: A wealth of data - A useful new way to capture the many aspects of poverty. Jul 29th 2010. Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/16693283
Timmermans, K. 2004. Developing countries and trade in health services: which way forward? International Journal of Health Services 34(3), pp. 453-466.
UK Department for International Development – DFID. 2011. UK aid: Changing lives, delivering results, London. http://dfid.gov.uk/Documents/Publications1/
United Nations Development Programme. 1990. Human Development Report 1990:Concept and Measurement of human development, New York.
Chapter 1: Defining and Measuring Human Development, pp. 85-103. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr_1990_en_chap1.pdf
Technical Notes: Technical Notes, pp. 104-113. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr_1990_en_technote.pdf
Chapter 5: Urbanisation and Human Development, pp. 85-103.
United Nations Development Programme. 2003. Human Development Report 2003: Millennium Development Goals: a Compact among Nations to end Human Poverty, New York. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr03_complete.pdf
United Nations Development Programme. 2009. Human Development Report 2009: Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development, New York. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr03_complete.pdf
United Nations Development Programme. 2010. Human Development Report 2010 - 20th Anniversary Edition: The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, New York. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2010/
Overview, pp. 1-9.
Chapter 1: Reaffirming Human Development, pp. 11-24.
Watson, V. (2009), ‘The planned city sweeps the poor away. . .’: Urban planning and 21st century urbanisation, Progress in Planning 72 (2009), pp. 151–193.
Welsh Assembly Government. 2006. Wales for Africa - A Framework for Welsh Assembly Government Action on International Sustainable Development, Cardiff. http://wales.gov.uk/topics/sustainabledevelopment/intdevelopment/walesforafrica/?lang=en
World Bank (2009) World Development Report. Chapter 4: Scale Economies and Agglomeration. (Interesting to compare to Hoselitz’s account).